1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services records, 1993-1996

Emory University

Emory University Archives

Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library

Atlanta, GA 30322



Permanent link: http://pid.emory.edu/ark:/25593/vnr2q

Collection Stored Off-Site

All or portions of this collection are housed off-site. Materials can still be requested but researchers should expect a delay of up to two business days for retrieval.

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Emory University. Genetics Laboratory.
Title: 1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services records, 1993-1996
Call Number:Series No. 284
Extent: 1.5 linear feet (3 boxes)
Abstract:Records regarding the planning and training of staff and volunteers for the 1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services including handbooks and ephemera from the program.
Language:Materials entirely in English.

Administrative Information

Restrictions on Access

Special restrictions apply: Selected materials restricted in accordance with Emory University Archive Access Policy.

Collection stored off-site. Researchers must contact Rose Library in advance to access this collection.

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

All requests subject to limitations noted in departmental policies on reproduction.




[after identification of item(s)], 1996 Olympic Games Gender Verification Services records, Emory University Archives, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University.


Processed by Laura Starratt, November 2021.

Collection Description

Administrative History

By 1960, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) expressed a desire to ensure that athletes were competing from an equal place regarding both performance enhancing drugs and gender-based competition, and the IOC required on-site testing to combat the inequality. By 1996, Sex chromatin testing replaced the previous, more invasive inspections, and was required by the IOC in the Atlanta Committee for Olympic Games' (ACOG) contract. The testing was done through the Polyclinic which was housed in the restricted area of the Olympic Village. The Polyclinic collected identification and samples, conducted a physical assessment, and issued a gender verification, or "GV" card. Emory Genetics Laboratory conducted the testing and positive results were reviewed by the Gender Verification Director with assistance by a board-certified female gynecologist. The Gender Verification Section of the Polyclinic and Emory Genetics Laboratory were opened for twenty-six days in July 1996 and included about 50 trained female volunteers. The IOC stopped requiring whole-scale gender verification in 1999.

Scope and Content Note

Collection consists of materials related to the management and training of staff and volunteers in the Polyclinic of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia from 1993-1996. The majority of the collection consists of handbooks, contact lists, and planning documents related to the collection of specimens for gender verification of female athletes. There are also a small amount of ephemera from the games, photographs, and copies of the forms used for this process.

Arrangement Note

Arranged by record type.

Selected Search Terms

Corporate Names

Topical Terms

Geographic Names

Container List

Box Folder Content
1 1 Article, Gender Verification at the Centennial Olympic Games, 1997
1 2 Contact lists, "Olympic Call List," and "Important Phone Numbers," 1995-1996
1 3 Contract, Gender Verification Services Agreement, Emory University and Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games, 1995 September 15
1 4 Correspondence and Memoranda, 1993-1995
1 5 Correspondence and Memoranda, 1996
1 6 Ephemera, Centennial Olympic Games,
1 7 Forms, "Gender Verification Registration" and "Specimen Control Form and Report of Negative Report" (blank), 1994-1996
1 8 List, National Olympic Committee Physicians, 1996 July 11
2 - Olympic Games Gender Verification, file 1 and 2, 1996 [original: disk?]
1 9 Olympic Games Staff and Volunteer Materials, 1996
1 10 Olympic Games Staff Handbook, 1996
1 11 Olympic Games Staff Resource Kit, 1996
1 12 Olympic Games Staff Resource Kit, Manager Position, 1996 June 24
1 13 Olympic Games Staff Resource Kit, Manager Position, 1996 June 26
2 1 Olympic Games Staff Resource Kit, Volunteer Position Aid, 1996
2 2 Operations Outline (draft), Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games, 1993 September 27
2 3 Personnel and Billing materials, Ralph Marion, 1995-1996
2 4 Photographs, 1996
2 5 Planning and Budget materials, Polyclinic, 1994-1996
2 6 Planning Documents, Handwritten Notes and Annotated Drafts, 1995-1996
2 7 Procedure guides, Athlete Processing, 1994-1996
2 8 Schedules, Gender Verification Staff and Volunteers, 1994-1996
2 9 Training materials, Olympic Games Staff Training Video, 1996 [original: VHS]
2 - Video, Making Every Moment Count, Olympic Games Staff Training, 1996