Subseries 6.2
Writings of others,
Boxes 43 - 48

Box Folder Content
43 1 Anonymous, "The Black American Revolution Reengages His African Identity in Nation Building," typescript with holograph corrections and notes, 18 pp. undated
43 2 Anonymous, "Black Communitarianism," photocopied typescript, 27 pp. undated
43 3 Anonymous, "Building the New Education Out of the Old," [Chapter III], undated
43 4 "Growth and Disruption, 1825-1838,"carbon typescript, 50 pp., undated
43 5 Anonymous, "Heterosexual and Familial Attitudes of Young Black Adults," typescript with holograph corrections, 40 pp., undated
43 6 Anonymous, "How Long Must the Negro Wait?" carbon typescript, 4 pp., undated
43 7 Anonymous, "A Litany for the Lord's Table," corrected typescript, 3 pp., undated
43 8 Anonymous, "Strange Fruit: An Analysis of Southern Lynching," [Chapter II], duplicated typescript, 89 pp. and notes, 14 pp., undated
43 9 Anonymous, "Three Aspects of Racism" and "A White Conspiracy Against African Alderman Joel Stokes," photocopied typescript, 8 June 1971
43 10 Anonymous, "To All Black People With White Friends," photocopied typescript, 4 pp., undated
43 11 Anonymous, "The 20th Century: Radicals and Redeemers," photocopied typescript, pp 34-109 with notes, undated
43 12 Anonymous, "Two Impossible Revolutions: Black Power and Church Power," typescript, 11 pp., 1969
43 13 Anonymous, Untitled paper regarding Albany [GA] riot, undated
43 14 Anonymous, Untitled lecture regarding racism in America, photocopied typescript, 12 pp., undated
43 15 Anonymous, Working paper regarding status of Middle America, photocopied typescript, 57 pp. and appendices, undated
43 16 ‘Abd-al-Khabir, Antar, "The Development of Al-Qur'an," (outline) photocopied typescript, 13 pp., undated
43 17 ‘Abd-al-Khabir, Antar, "Islam and Its Interpretation of Religious Scriptures," photocopied typescript, 26 pp. undated
43 18 Allan, George, "Sartre's Constriction of the Marxist Dialectic," photocopied typescript, 10 pp., undated
43 19 Alves, Rubem A., "Theology and the Liberation of Man," photocopied typescript, 18 pp., 1971
43 20 Assman, Hugo, "The Christian Contribution to the Liberation of Latin America," photocopied typescript, 15 pp., 1972
43 21 Beckford, George L., "Foundations of Black Disposition: A Study of the Social Economy of Poverty Among Black People In the New World, preliminary draft, photocopied typescript, 83 pp., June 1970
43 22 Bennett, Lerone, "The Cities and the Seventies," speech presented to the Hungry Club Forum [Atlanta], photocopied typescript, 16 pp., 21 January 1970
43 23 Bennett, Lerone, Miscellaneous writings relating to the Institute of the Black World, 1970
43 24 Biddle, Stanton F., " The Schomburg Collection- Documenting the Black Experience," paper delivered before Annual Conference of the Society of American Archivists, typescript, 20 pp., 1 October 1970
43 25 Billingsley, Amy Tate, "The Black Woman and the Family," photocopied typescript, 16 pp., May 1973
43 26 Blake, J. Herman, "On a Black College," duplicated typescript, 8 pp., 1969
43 27 Bloy, Myron B., "The Spiritual Renewal of Higher Education, 6 pp., undated
43 28 Boggs, Grace Lee, "The Revolution in America," photocopied typescript of address, University Center for Adult Education, Detroit [Michigan], 12 November 1968
43 29 Boggs, Grace Lee, "Towards a New System of Education," duplicated copy of keynote speech, Ann Arbor [Michigan] School System Inservice Day, 8 October 1968
43 30 Boggs, James, "Relevant Philosophy for the Late 20th Century," homecoming convocation speech, Fisk University, duplicated typescript, 13 pp., 8 November 1973
43 31 Bond, Julian, "A Time to Speak, A Time to Act: The Movement in Politics," advance uncorrected proofs from Simon and Schuster, 105 pp., 1972
43 32 Bonilla, Eduardo Seda, "Socio-Cultural Invisibility: Challenge to Cultural Pluralism," photocopied typescript, 12 pp., ca. 1971
43 33 Bowen, Calvin, "African Dances," [poem], carbon typescript, 1 p. with clipping, ca. 1968
43 34 Boyd, William, "Institutional Responses to Student Alienation," paper delivered at Danforth Conference, photocopied typescript, 7 pp., 1968
43 35 Bradshaw, B.T., "Is Negro Business Helping Negroes to Help Themselves,-" photocopied typescript of speech, 15 pp., 1939
43 36 Brathwaite, Edward, "The West Indies," International Conference on Cultural Diversity and National Understanding Within West African Countries, photocopied typescript, 71 pp., December 1970
44 1 Brown, Enora and Sybil Griffin, "A Chronology and Bibliography on Henry Highland Garnet," student paper, photocopied typescript, undated
44 2 Brown, Judith, "Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance," student paper, typescript, 27 pp., ca. 1969
43 3 Bryant, Helen Yvonne, "Checking Out the Homeland: Afro-Americans and the Return to Africa, 1965-1968," student paper, typescript, May 1969
44 4 Camacho, Andrew G.J., "Education for 20th Century Trinidad and Tobago, photocopied typescript, 7 pp., undated
44 5 Carr, Canon Burgess, statement before the U.S. House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Africa, photocopied typescript, 14 pp., 23 July 1973
44 6 Castillo, Cardenas, "The Political Task of the Church," photocopied typescript, 12 pp., 1970
44 7 Castro, Emilio, "A Call to Action," paper delivered at CICOP Conference, photocopied typescript, 9 pp., 1971
44 8 Cebrun, Mary Juliette, "The Black Pearl: The Woman in the Negro Underclass," student paper, photocopied typescript with notes, 21 pp., 1969
44 9 Cebrun, Mary Juliette, "Sapphire: Situation of Uprootedness," student paper, photocopied typescript, 8 pp. and appendices, 1970
44 10 Christians for Socialism, "First Latin American Encounter of Christians for Socialism," translation, photocopied typescript, 13 pp., 1972
44 11 Churchville, John E., "Jesus, Salvation, and You" and "The Real Jesus," photocopied typescript, 1967
44 12 Clarke, John Henrik, "History and Liberation," introductory remarks for panel discussion, AFT Negro History Conference, 8-10 December 1966
44 13 Clarke, John Henrik, "The Slave Trade and Slavery," carbon typescript, 7 pp., January 1970
44 14 Clayton, R.L., "An Educational Crisis Facing Blacks," photocopied typescript, 7 pp., undated
44 15 Cobb, Charles E., Introduction of Rev. Charles Koen, United Front of Cairo, Illinois, before 700 activists at the Salute to Chapman, Koen, Modeste, and Wright, New York City," photocopied typescript, 1 p., 19 January 1974
44 16 Collins, Daniel F., "Some Changes in the Structure and Functions of the Negro Church," paper presented at American Society for the Study of Negro Life and History, photocopied typescript, 27 pp. October 1969
44 17 Comblin, Joseph, translator, "Liberation in Latin American Christian Thinking," photocopied typescript, 14 pp., 1973
44 18 Contee, Clarence G., "The Ideological Pilgrimage of W.E.B. DuBois," photocopied typescript, 16 pp. 1971
44 19 Crawford, Margo, untitled paper regarding slavery, photocopied typescript, 52 pp., with holograph letter from author, undated
44 20 Davidson, Doug, "Liberal Ideology and Black Education," photocopied typescript, 11 pp., undated
44 21 Davidson, Doug and Carl Mack, "A Theoretical Analysis of the Cultural Nature of White People, student paper, photocopied typescript, 19 pp., 1969
44 22 Davies, Chester, "Approaches to Black Education," presentation given at the Consultation for Educational Justice, photocopied typescript, 7 pp., 3 June 1970
44 23 Davis, Tommy G., "King Research Paper," student paper, photocopied typescript with corrections, 22 pp., 1973
44 24 d'Epinay, Christian Lalive, "Protestant Churches and the Latin American Revolution," translated by James E. Goff, photocopied typescript, 9 pp., 1967
44 25 Denis Herve, "Negritude: Haitian Origins," photocopied holograph draft of lecture delivered at Barnard College, undated
44 26 Dill, Richard, "Colonization Schemes in the United States (1619-1860)," student paper, photocopied typescript, 13 pp., 1970
44 27 Dill, Richard, "Ghetto Language," student paper, photocopied typescript, 10 pp., 24 June 1969
44 28 Dixon, Roy H., "Is the Black Man Obsolete in America?" photocopied typescript with letter and photocopied published materials, 16 pp., 1971
44 29 Drake, St. Clair, "Black Studies: Toward an Intellectual Framework," address presented at Martin Luther King Distinguished Visiting Lecture Series, Brooklyn College, 23 September 1969
44 30 Drake, St. Clair," In the Mirror of Black Scholarship: W. Allison Davis and Deep South", photocopied typescript with holograph corrections and letter from the author, 19 pp., 1973
44 31 Drake, St. Clair, "Reflections on Black Studies," expanded version of paper presented to the Danforth Workshop on Liberal Arts Education, Colorado College, July 1970
44 32 Drake, St. Clair, "West Africa and Cross Currents With the New World," address, Martin Luther King Distinguished Visiting Lecture Series, Brooklyn College [University of New York], photocopied typescript and draft copy, 26 September 1968
44 33 Dimmer, Melvin, "The Future of Spelman and The Atlanta University Center in an Age of Blackness, photocopied typescript of address delivered at Colloquium in Sister's Chapel, Spelman College (Atlanta) 13 February 1969
44 34 Elliott, Paul R. and Harold M. Stahmer, "On the Need for a State-Wide Consortium of Traditionally Black and White Institutions of Higher Learning in the State of Florida," 4 pp. undated
44 35 Ferry, W. H., "Farewell to Integration," photocopied typescript, 31 pp. 9 January 1968
44 36 Ferry, W.H., "Hail to Co-Existence," photocopied typescript, 23 pp., 8 April 1968
44 37 Ferry, W.H., Letter to the University of California Board of Regents regarding "the situation of black students," photocopied typescript, 6 pp., 7 November 1968
44 38 Ferry, W.H., "The Unanswerable Question," photocopied typescript, 29 pp., 19 April 1969
44 39 Gayles, Gloria, Review of Jubilee by Margaret Walker, typescript with holograph revisions and photocopied corrected typescript with "How I Wrote Jubilee" by Margaret Walker appended, undated Jubilee" by Margaret Walker appended, undated
44 40 Gerald, Carolyn, Teacher-Student Involvement Section for first book in the Heritage Series, photocopied typescript, 1969
44 41 Grajewski, Karen, "Other Roads From Birmingham," student paper, typescript with corrections, 1969
44 42 Gutman, Herbert G., "Persistent Myths About the American Negro Family: A Critical Reexamination of E. Franklin Frazier's The Negro Family in the United States," photocopied typescript, 48 pp., 1969
45 1 Hansen, James E., Letter to Christianity and Crisis regarding article by Vincent Harding, "Vietnam: History, Judgment and Redemption," in 18 October 1965 issue, photocopied typescript, 1 December 1965
45 2 [Harding, Rosemarie?], Impression of mass meetings, typescript with holograph corrections and notes, 1964
45 3 Harvey, Louis Charles, "The Dying Patient, Death and the Black Funeral," and Mitchell, Henry H., "The Black Parish—Its Education and Administration," photocopied transcript, 38 pp., undated
45 4 Hashimoto, Hideo, "Okinawa: Frustration and Hope," photocopied typescript, 15 December 1969
45 5 Hill, Robert A., "Marcus Garvey: The Prophet of Freedom," carbon typescript, 11 pp., undated
45 6 Holmes, A. Herbert, "The Education of the Black Man in Georgia, 1864-1871," student paper, carbon typescript, 36 pp., undated
45 7 Hutchins, Robert M., "The Constitution of Public Education," photocopied typescript, 15 pp., undated
45 8 Jackson, Catherine, "An Interpretation of Four New World Slave Revolts," photocopied typescript, 58 pp., undated
45 9 Johnson, William R., "The Negro Church and the Black Power Movement," student paper, photocopied typescript, 27 pp. 1968
45 10 Jones, Lawrence N., "A Preliminary Exploration of the Theology of the ‘Invisible' Institution 1619-1860," student paper, photocopied typescript, 20 pp., 1970 with., "Fresh Perspectives on the Theology of the ‘Invisible' Institution 1619-1860" student paper, photocopied typescript, 24 pp., 1970
45 11 Jones, M.J., "Theological Implications of the Concept of Black Awareness," photocopied typescript, 17 pp., undated
45 12 Kidder, Alice, "The Economics of Negro Migration: 1865-1920," photocopied typescript, 1968
45 13 King, Martin Luther, Jr., "The Casualties of War in Vietnam," speech, The Nation Institute, photocopied typescript, 22 pp., 25 February 1967
45 14 King, Martin Luther, Jr., "Beyond Vietnam," address, photocopied typescript, 10 pp. with appended remarks by Henry Commager, John C. Bennett, Rabbi Abraham Herschel, 4 April 1967
45 15 King, Slater, "Why a Land Trust for Southern Blacks?" conference paper, Rural Development Conference, 1968
45 16 Ladner, Joyce Ann, Comments on "Persistent Myths About the American Negro Family: A Critical Reexamination of E. Franklin Frazier's The Negro Family in the United States," paper delivered at Fifty Fourth Annual Meeting of The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, Birmingham, Alabama, photocopied typescript 12 pp., 10 October 1969
45 17 Ladner, Joyce Ann, "On Becoming a Woman in the Ghetto: Modes of Adaptation," dissertation, photocopied typescript, pp. 1-99, 1970, [1 of 4]
45 18 Ladner, Joyce Ann, "On Becoming a Woman in the Ghetto: Modes of Adaptation," dissertation, photocopied typescript, pp. 100-199, 1970, [2 of 4]
45 19 Ladner, Joyce Ann, "On Becoming a Woman in the Ghetto: Modes of Adaptation," dissertation, photocopied typescript, pp. 200-299, 1970, [3 of 4]
45 20 Ladner, Joyce Ann, "On Becoming a Woman in the Ghetto: Modes of Adaptation," dissertation, photocopied typescript, pp. 300-379, 1970, [4 of 4]
45 21 Lang, Jesse, "Close Observation of Lumpen and the SCPEW," photocopied typescript, 12 pp., with attached summary, 5 pp., undated
45 22 Lara-Braud, Jorge, "Revolution in the Western Hemispheres," address given at the annual meeting of Methodist students of the South Central Region, photocopied typescript, undated
45 23 Laue, James, "Teacher Training and Community Relations," duplicated typescript, 27 pp. with TLS from James Laue, 1969
45 24 Lester, Julius, "The Angry Children of Malcolm X," duplicated typescript, 22 pp., 8 August 1966
45 25 [Long, Charles H.], "Religious-Historical Roots of the Black Experience, photocopied typescript, 10 pp., undated
46 1 McGuire, John, Untitled article on Black consciousness, photocopied typescript, 12 pp., undated
46 2 McWorter, Gerald "Position Paper on Black Identity," duplicated typescript, 1 p., undated
46 3 Mahoney, William, Black Jacob, typescript with corrections, pp. 1-99, undated
46 4 Mahoney, William, Black Jacob, typescript with corrections, pp. 100-199, undated
46 5 Mahoney, William, Black Jacob, typescript with corrections, pp. 199-327, undated
46 6 Manong, Joe Teko "Dope Is Death," screenplay by Oyamo, photocopied typescript, 166 pp., ca. 1973
46 7 Marina [?], "Bongo Man Ah Come!" or "Inside Yard Theatre," photocopied typescript of article intended for publication in Journal of Black Poetry, undated
46 8 Marine, James, Governmental Response to Campus Unrest," photocopied typescript, 5 pp. undated
46 9 Martin, Warren Bryan, "Comments on Institutional Change and Knowledge Utilization," prepared for Strategies for Change Workshop (Chicago) 3 March 1972
46 10 Martin, Warren Bryan, "To Whom Is the University Responsible and For What?" photocopied typescript, 17 pp., ca. 1972
46 11 Matthews, Basil, "The Black Cognitive Process," paper read to University Faculty Forum, Howard University, photocopied typescript, 20 pp., 10 May 1972
46 12 Miller, Randy H., "The Economic Philosophy of Marcus Garvey," student paper, two drafts, 1970
46 13 Minnis, Jack, "Life with Lyndon in the Great Society," volume 1, number 9, 25 March 1965
46 14 Miranda, Osmundo Afonso, "Black and White Theology: the Need for a Theological Dialogue," photocopied typescript, ca. 1970
46 15 [Mitcham], Mayme," Where Is the Balm in Gilead?" 1971
46 16 Mitchell, Henry H., "A Reappraisal of the Roots of Black Religion, photocopied typescript, 37 pp. ca. 1971
46 17 Moss, James A., "Racism: A Consistent Aspect of American Foreign Policy," paper delivered at Smith college, photocopied typescript, 18 pp., 27 April 1971
46 18 The Negro in American Life, student papers from course taught by Vincent Harding, Spelman College, 1968
46 19 Nyereve, [Jules ?], Tanzania's Ten Years of Work and Progress (1961-1971), pp. 53-62, photocopied typescript, 10 pp., undated
46 20 Oden, Mila, "The Amazons of Dahomey," student paper, 12 pp., 1971
46 21 Owanga-Welo, Jean," A Historical Profile of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. July Through December 1965" student paper, photocopied typescript with corrections, 17 pp., 1973
46 22 Parris, Canute, N., "The De Facto Recognition of the Smith Government in Zimbabwe by the United States and Great Britain," paper prepared for the Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee Conference on Zimbabwe, Mogadishu, Republic of Somalia, January, 1973
47 1 Peavy, Charles D., "Faulkner and the Negro," paper delivered at ASNLH meeting, photocopied typescript with TLS from the author, 13 pp., 1969
47 2 Penn, Ojeda L., "Booker T. Washington Vis-à-vis Black Militancy in 1970," student paper, 11 pp., undated
47 3 Penn, Ojeda L., "A Critical Analysis of the Major Themes in ‘The Rhythm of Violence' by Lewis Nkosi," student paper, 7 pp., 1971
47 4 Penn, Ojeda L., "An Examination of the Character Delineation of Nat Turner in The Confessions of Nat Turner by William Styron," student paper, 14 pp., 1971
47 5 Penn, Ojeda L., "The Religion of Black Youth: 1971," address delivered in Montgomery Alabama, 25 July 1971, photocopied typescript with corrections, 16 pp.
47 6 Perez-Ramirez, Gustavo "Liberation: A Prophetic Cry in the Americas," article translated by James Goff, 10 pp., 1971
47 7 Perry, Lewis, "Adin Ballou's Hopedale Community and the Theology of Antislavery," carbon typescript, 32 pp., 1968
47 8 Pfister, Arthur, "A Guilty Love," poem, typescript, November 1968
47 9 Pfister, Arthur, "Wig-Poem," holograph poem, 2 pp., undated
47 10 Price, E. Curmie, "A Song for the Death of Brave Men," with "In My Own Voice," "A Scene Rude," "A Momentous Occasion," "New York, 1966," "Sunday," "A Poem in Two Parts, for People," "Landscapes," "An Episode on the Frontier," "A Note," "A Fable," "Harlem Summer," carbon typescript, ca. 1970
47 11 Ragland, Martha, "Motivations and Methods of White Power," address, Sixth National Conference of Friends on Race Relations, carbon typescript, 9 pp., 6 July 1967
47 12 Ray, LeRoi, "Department of community," photocopied typescript, undated
47 13 Record, Wilson, "Black Studies and White Sociologists," proposal, preliminary report and paper delivered at American Sociological Association, New Orleans, 1972
47 14 Redfern II,"I Have Returned," poem with "African Queen," "Ju Ju," "Black Images Can Kill," :To Mama," "Negro/Observation," "Black Mercenary/GI," "Standing Cool and Looking Clean," "To Keorapetse Kgositsile," "Message to All My Screaming Brothers," photocopied typescript, undated
47 15 Reese, Sarah Carolyn, "A Study of the Poetry of Langston Hughes," Master of Arts thesis, photocopied typescript, 92 pp., photocopied typescript,, undated
47 16 Remey, Anselme, "The Duvalier Phenomenon," photocopied typescript, 50 pp., 1973
47 17 Remey, Anselme, "Ethno-class and Worker's Consciousness in a French Caribbean Island: Martinique (1), 1970
47 18 Remey, Anselme, "Understanding the ‘Duvalier Phenomenon' and Its Significance," carbon typescript with editorial markings, 1972
47 19 Rodney, Walter, ‘The Economic Underdevelopment of Africa by Europe: 1450-1960," paper presented at The Center for Afro/American and African Studies Colloquium on Africa duplicated manuscript 8 pp. with notes, undated
47 20 Rodney, Walter, "Education in Africa," transcription of class lecture at University of Massachusetts, 54 pp, 27 April 1972
47 21 Rodney, Walter," "‘Labour' As a Conceptual Framework for Pan –African Studies," photocopied typescript, 10 pp., undated
47 22 Rodney, Walter, "Towards the Sixth Pan-African Congress," photocopied typescript, 22 pp., undated
47 23 Rubin, Max J. "My Views on the Decentralization of the New York School System," photocopied typescript, with memorandum, 1969
47 24 Seifert, Harvey J., "The Ethics of Non-Violence," photocopied typescript, 11 47 pp. undated
47 25 Shick, Tom W., "A Quantative Analysis of Liberian Colonization from 1820 to 1843 With Special Reference to Mortality," photocopied typescript, 36 pp., with reprint from Journal of African History, volume 12, no. 1, 1971
47 26 Smith, Stanley H., "Blue Prints for Institutionalizing Black Values," photocopied typescript, 25 pp., undated
47 27 Sowande, Fela, "Black Experience of Religion," paper delivered at Conference on Continuities and Discontinuities in Afro-American Societies and Cultures [Jamaica], 2-4 April 1970, photocopied typescript with letter from the author
47 28 Soyinka, Wole, "The Lion and the Jewel," play intended for classroom use, typescript, undated
48 1 Spiegel, John P., "The Dynamics of Violent Confrontation," photocopied typescript, 24 pp., 1971
48 2 Spiegel, John P., "The Group Psychology of Campus Disorders," photocopied typescript, 43 pp., undated
48 3 Stafford, Walter and Joyce A. Ladner, "Black Repression in the Cities: An Analysis of Institutional Racism in the Seventies," photocopied typescript, 40 pp., undated
48 4 Strickland, William, "The Gary Convention and the Crisis of American Politics," photocopied typescript with holograph revisions, 15 pp., undated
48 5 Strickland, William, "Identity and the Black Struggle: Personal Reflections," photocopied typescript with editor's markings, undated
48 6 Strickland, William, "Politics and Black Liberation," photocopied typescript, 5 pp., 16 June 1970
48 7 Thomas, Richard, "Carter G. Woodson, the Father of Afro-American History: His Impact on American Historiography," tentative outline for Master of Arts thesis, photocopied typescript, 1 p., undated
48 8 Thomas, Richard, "Shadows of History," poems, photocopied typescript, undated
48 9 Torodash, Martin, "Lincoln: Reluctant Emancipator?" photocopied typescript, 14 pp., undated
48 10 Walker, Margaret, "How I Wrote Jubilee," four drafts with notes, revisions, and correspondence, undated
48 11 Ward, Samuel Ringgold, Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro, reprint of 1855 edition, uncorrected proofs with holograph notes, undated
48 12 Watkins, Mel, editor, The Black Review, No. 1, advance proofs, 1971
48 13 Wilkins, Gregory, "Black Biographies," Institute of the Black World summer seminar project, 1970
48 14 Williams, Melvin G. "Black Biography," Institute of the Black World summer seminar project, 1970
48 15 Wilson, William, "New Creation or Familiar Death: A Rejoinder to Vincent Harding," photocopied typescript, 12 pp. 1969
48 16 Wirth, Thomas H., "‘Predominantly Negro' Colleges: Gray Schools for Black Students," photocopied typescript, 10 pp., ca. 1969
48 17 Wright, Clarence E., "Revenue Sharing and Substate Regionalism in Georgia," paper presented at First Annual Conference of the Atlanta Chapter of the National Association of Black Social Workers, 8 February 1974, photocopied typescript, 14 pp.
48 18 Wynter, Sylvia, "Natives in a New World: The African Transformation in the Americas," typescript with holograph revisions, notes and TLS from the author, 40 pp., ca. 1971
48 19 Unidentified fragment, carbon typescript with corrections, pp. 493-568, undated
48 20 Unidentified fragments
v1.11.0-dev