Atlanta Black Crackers oral history interviews, 1973-1974

Emory University

Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library

Atlanta, GA 30322


Permanent link:

Descriptive Summary

Creator: Joyce, Allen Edward, Interviewer.
Title: Atlanta Black Crackers oral history interviews, 1973-1974
Call Number:Manuscript Collection No. 1200
Extent: AV Masters: .5 linear ft.
Abstract:The collection contains oral history interviews with former members and owners of the Atlanta Black Crackers, as well as Atlanta sports journalists.
Language:Materials entirely in English.

Administrative Information

Restrictions on Access

Unrestricted access.

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

All requests subject to limitations noted in departmental policies on reproduction.


Gift, 2011


[after identification of item(s)], Atlanta Black Crackers oral history interviews, Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University.


Processed by Sarah Quigley, 2011.

This finding aid may include language that is offensive or harmful. Please refer to the Rose Library's harmful language statement for more information about why such language may appear and ongoing efforts to remediate racist, ableist, sexist, homophobic, euphemistic and other oppressive language. If you are concerned about language used in this finding aid, please contact us at

Collection Description

Historical Note

The Atlanta Black Crackers were a Negro League baseball team based in Atlanta, Georgia. The club was founded in 1919, by a group of local businessmen and began their first season as the Atlanta Cubs. By the end of the season, the team changed its name to the Atlanta Black Crackers after the city's white minor league team, the Atlanta Crackers. The club recruited players from local leagues and colleges such as Morris Brown and Morehouse, and were known as formidable opponents. In 1920, the team joined the Negro Southern League (NSL). Financial difficulties caused the team to dissolve before the end of the season, however, and it did not return to league play until 1925. The Black Crackers continued to struggle for several years, dissolving again by 1928. Efforts to revive the club were launched in 1935 and 1936, but were not completely successful. In 1937, John Harden and his wife Billie assumed ownership of the club. A year later, the Black Crackers moved to the Negro American League (NAL), winning the season's second half championship. In 1939, financial concerns moved the club to Indianapolis, Indiana where they played as the ABCs. The team was unsuccessful in Indiana and Harden decided to move the club back to Atlanta. As a result, the club was expelled from the NAL and disbanded until 1943. After two successful years, the team won both halves of the 1945 season to become the NSL champions. The Black Crackers disbanded permanently in 1949, four years after the integration of the major leagues.

Scope and Content Note

The collection contains oral history interviews with former members of the Atlanta Black Crackers, including Donn Clendenon, Harry "Squab" Jones, Joe Lockhart, and James "Red" Moore. The collection also includes interviews with Hank Aaron; former owner Billie Harden; Atlanta Daily World sports reporter Ric Roberts; and Atlanta Daily World sports editor Marion Jackson. Allen Joyce conducted the interviews between 1973-1974 as part of the research for his Master's thesis, "The Atlanta Black Crackers" (Emory University, 1975).

Arrangement Note

Arranged alphabetically by interviewee.

Selected Search Terms

Personal Names

Corporate Names

Topical Terms

Form/Genre Terms

Container List

Box Folder Content
AV1 - Aaron, Hank
AV1 - Adlett, Leroy
AV1 - Clendenon, Donn, September 28, 1973
AV1 - Clendenon, Donn, March 27, 1974
AV1 - Daniels, Joe
AV1 - Donaldson, Jaspar (bus man of the Atlanta Crackers)
AV1 - Doyle, Joe
AV1 - Echols, Melvin "Sunny Jim"
AV1 - Evans, Felix "Chin"
AV1 - Favors, Monk
AV1 - Greene, "Pig"
AV1 - Hambrick, Leroy "Brick"
AV1 - Harden, Billie
AV1 - Ingram, Alfred
AV1 - Jackson, E.O.
AV1 - Jackson, Marion
AV1 - Johnson, W.A.
AV1 - Jones, "Squab," February 1, 1974
AV1 - Jones, "Squab" and Babe Davis, February 7, 1974
AV1 - Lockhart, Joe, September 20, 1973
AV1 - Lockhart, Joe and Morris Brown, February 20, 1974
AV1 - Mann, Earl
AV1 - Moore, James "Red," January 19, 1974
AV1 - Moore, James "Red" and Killean Thompson, February 7, 1974
AV1 - Roberts, Ric
AV1 - Smith, Joel
AV1 - Wingo, "Doc"